The Use and Implementation of Health Information Systems
The contents of this article are dedicated to investigating the utilization and application of health informatics in a variety of contexts. Hence, the article will treat the subjects of health information exchange, health knowledge management, e-health systems, e-public health systems and m-health systems.
* Health information exchangesrefer to the transmission and dissemination of healthcare information electronically among organizations within a region or community. The technological development registered at the level of health informatics resulted in the capability to electronically transmit clinical data among disparate healthcare information systems without it having to suffer any alterations. The degree of exchangeability has expanded to a national level. This way clinicians can integrate their independent records, creating agile, patient-centered electronic health records that generate a new level of patient safety and information exchange.
* Health knowledge managementimplies concerted, coordinated and deliberate efforts to manage the organizational knowledge by means of processes aiming at identifying and leveraging it to accentuate the organization’s ability to compete. Such an application in the healthcare domain has led to simplifying the process of updating the general knowledge database, creating a convenient discussion environment that replaces the traditional meeting.
* E-health systemsgather the healthcare practices that are supported by electronic processes and communication. This type of system comprises a broad spectrum of services that slowly deletes the separation line between medicine and information technology. Among these services, one could include telemedicine, electronic medical record, consumer health informatics, virtual healthcare teams, health knowledge management.
* E-public health systemsembody another application of the health informatics, this time in the public domain. Its functionality has to satisfy the public health mandate of improving the health status of the community and the population at large. Through this system, community health is assessed and proper measures are taken. Collection, analysis, interpretation and communication of the results are the primary processes that are carried out within an e-public health system. Technologies employed in this type of system include geographical information systems (GIS), data mining methodology and data warehousing.
* M-health systems refer to mobile communication network technologies for healthcare that are used to ensure efficiency and to supply timely and accurate patient information to medical professionals that are sent on “field”. Since hospital environments involve mobility of medical professionals, support personnel and indispensable medical equipment, more and more wireless technologies have been adopted.